management, livelihood improvement and diversification, improvement of basic services and capacity building, project management, monitoring and evaluation. For the poorest, who have the least capacity to effectively manage risk, diversification may be a response to constraints imposed upon them by increasing climate risk. The analysis focuses on a … This is the approach taken in this paper. However, identification of the factors that determine households’ choice of livelihood strategies of pastoralists has received little attention. Livelihood diversification is beneficial to mitigate economic and environmental risks and to improve livelihood sustainability and regional sustainable development. this „resilience‟ to stress and shocks is the diversification of elements that comprise „livelihood‟. The results indicate that livelihood diversification has a positive and significant effect on household income at p < 0.0001. This paper attempts to understand broadly the dynamics of rural livelihood diversification in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. REVIEW ON DETERMINANTS OF SUSTAINABLE RURAL LIVELIHOOD DIVERSIFICATION OF SMALL HOLDER FARMERS IN ETHIOPIA. For the poorest, who have the least capacity to effectively manage risk, diversification may be a response to constraints imposed upon them by increasing climate risk. Owning higher number of livestock and larger size of farm land with better access to improved seed and family labor use helps rural households significantly improve their farm income in particular and household total income in general. Income diversification is sometimes used interchangeable with livelihood diversification in literature. Diversification of livelihoods is essential RNFE is progressive and livelihood diversification is a positive strategy of adaptation which can lead to accumulation by rural producers. The review was made on determinants and challenges of livelihood diversification in Ethiopia. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. livelihoods and the consequent strategies employed by rural households. Household livelihood diversification is a strategy to minimize risk and uncertainty. Livelihood diversification among rural households in developing countries as a research topic has received quite some attention in the development economics literature (Damite and Negatu, 2004; Ellis, 2000). Over the past three decades scholars and practitioners have looked to livelihood diversification as a strategy for sustainable resource exploitation and improved wellbeing. LIVELIHOODS DIVERSIFICATION ANALYSIS (LDA) FINAL REPORT APRIL 25, 2017 This publication was produced for review by the United States Agency for International Development. Diversification may reduce this risk, but at the cost of lower returns in the long term (although not necessarily). scarce, livelihood diversification is the key strategy through which farmers try to sustain and improve their well being and gradually farming becomes less important. Different published and unpublished documents were collected through different search engines from different databases, Google scholar and Google. It is therefore not surprising that many development strategies and programs seek to design development interventions to better promote livelihood diversification… By applying a … 2 A. This paper explores just one facet of livelihood diversity, namely the reasons for households to adopt multiple livelihood strategies. 2007). Ethiopia’s agricultural productivity is considered low despite the presence of various agricultural policies. Rural livelihoods diversification has generally occurred as a result of an increased importance of off-farm wage labor in household livelihood portfolio or through the development of new forms of on-farm/on-site production of non-conventional marketable commodities. The results show that livelihood diversification is very high in coastal households in Zanzibar. As agricultural specialization can start from an initial diversification move, also livelihoods diversification can eventually lead to some form of household specialization. Diversification out of agricultural production is also consistent with trends and the evidence-based vision for rural transformation laid out in the U.S. Government’s Global Food Security Strategy (GFSS). designed to address any vulnerability of enhance livelihoods perhaps by diversification of income streams. (ii) Organization of this paper This paper reviews some of the broad theoretical and case-study based literature on various forms of livelihood diversification in rural areas of … This paper analyzes the livelihood of the Borana pastoral communities of Southern Oromiya in Ethiopia. Understanding how livelihood diversification contributes to long-term non-migration decisions of people at risks is innovative and timely in the context of future climate change adaptation planning. Metadata Show full item record. This second set of issues represents the entry point of this article, namely, to highlight the differ-ent livelihood diversifi cation trends and strategies practiced by rural dwellers, and identify the key determinants of these strategies to inform the development of appro-priate policies for poverty reduction. DOI: 10.1002/JID.1419 Corpus ID: 54075370. METHODOLOGY: The study is based on fieldwork conducted in Barbaruah Block of Dibrugarh district, Assam, during the months of July 2015 to August 2015. Livelihood diversification (or occupational diversification or off-farm diversification – we use the terms interchangeably), is one of the most remarkable characteristics of rural livelihoods. … According to Lawal and Omonona … Livelihood diversification is a process by which rural households construct a diverse portfolio of activities and social support capabilities in their struggle for survival and improvement in their standards of living [] and the means of gaining a living [].It can be defined as the maintenance and continuous alteration of highly varied range of activities and occupations to minimize household … determinants of livelihood diversification among rural households in Kwara State and specifically, to identify the pattern of livelihood diversification and determine the level of diversification. With respect to ecosystem-based livelihoods, there is more household participation in fishing and seaweed farming, but it varies from village to village. For instance, in particular circumstance migratory wage labor may result so cost/effective to push the household away from conventional on-farm activities. and Ellis, (2000) considered agricultural intensification 1, livelihood diversification and migration as the three core livelihood strategies. However, as the success rate of these approaches falls short of expectations, questions … more livelihood diversification and non-farm employment is typically good for individuals and overall economic growth in SSA. Then 2SLS model was employed to detect the effects of CEI on household income. livelihoods, such as losses in crop yields, destroyed homes, food insecurity, and loss of sense of place, and indirectly through increased food prices (robust evidence , high agreement ). Furthermore, it is crucial to recognize that rural people have their own strategies to secure their … PDF | Diversification of livelihood activities minimizes households’ vulnerability to shocks by reducing income variability. It focuses on existing literature and on three case studies: (1) Karamoja, northeastern Uganda; (2) Borana Zone, southern Ethiopia; and (3) Garissa County, northeastern Kenya. Livelihood diversification interests and barriers to uptake for target populations: What are the economic and vocational visions and aspirations of population sub-groups of interest, and their perceived challenges and barriers to diversifying away from traditional climate-dependent livelihoods? The study employed … The report emphasizes households and communities that are combining pastoralism with other livelihood activities or have moved out of … In this sense they are pushed into … As far as strategies are concerned, Scoones (1998) and Ellis, (2000) considered agricultural intensification 1, livelihood diversification and migration as the three core Six determinants of diversification are considered in the light of that distinction, and these are seasonality, risk, labour markets, credit markets, asset strategies, and coping strategies. Before the commencement of fieldwork, a pilot study is conducted during the month of June 2015. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. Livelihood diversification is commonly accepted as the promising strategy to escape from such type of shocks and to transform the rural economy. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. On the other hand livelihood diversification is viewed as a residual sector that offers no more than a ‘bargain basement’ for distress or … However, income diversification refers to the process by which … These policies focus mainly on on-farm agricultural development to the neglect of rich opportunities for non-agricultural livelihood diversification activities. Thus, rural households engage in to different livelihood diversification activities to ensure their food needs and secure their future livelihoods. Impact . IMPACT OF LIVELIHOOD DIVERSIFICATION ON HOUSEHOLD FOOD SECURITY: THE CASE OF HURUNGWE DISTRICT, ZIMBABWE by ADMIRAL NCUBE Submitted in accordance with the requirements for the MASTER OF ARTS degree in the subject of DEVELOPMENT STUDIES at the UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AFRICA SUPERVISOR: DR. STEPHAN P. TREURNICHT . Jude Ndzifon Kimengsi, Alfred Kechia Mukong, Roland Azibo Balgah, Livelihood Diversification and Household Well-Being: Insights and Policy Implications for Forest-Based Communities in Cameroon, Society & Natural Resources, 10.1080/08941920.2020.1769243, (1-20), (2020). Stakeholders’ consultations were carried out at community, district, and regional levels. This reading provides an example of analysis of diversification among primarily rural households in Zambia. You do not need the households’ level of livelihood diversification. To learn more, view our. LIVELIHOOD DIVERSIFICATION STRATEGIES, INCOMES AND SOIL MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES: A CASE STUDY FROM KERIO VALLEY, KENYA MIYUKI IIYAMA1*, PATRICK KARIUKI 2, PATTI KRISTJANSON , SIMEON KAITIBIE2 and JOSEPH MAITIMA2 1University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa 2The International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract: African farmers diversify their livelihood … The aims of the review were to: (1) Identify livelihood diversification strategies and (2) Review determinant and challenges of rural livelihood diversification strategies. livelihood diversification strategies. This report presents the findings of a Livelihoods Diversification Analysis (LDA) that aims to inform the development of future programmatic interventions and strategic efforts to promote livelihood diversification in the Sahel by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Sahel Regional Office (SRO) at USAID/Senegal. Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer. However, putting SLA into practice is not as … Distribution of sampled household by livelihood livelihood strategies of off farm/non-farm activities. Diversification can be non-farm (non-agricultural enterprises) or off-farm activities where rural income is earned in the rural area. Furthermore, fisheries and tourism are the Livelihood diversification includes both on and off-farm activities which are undertaken to generate additional income from the major agricultural activities, via the production of subsidiary agricultural and non-agricultural goods and services, the sale of wage labor, or self-employment in small firms, and other strategies undertaken to minimize risk. 2 Professor, Institute of Development Studies, The University of … Keywords: Livelihood Diversification, Women Empowerment, Self-Help Groups, Micro Credit 1. It is known as the sum of the squares … Hussein, Karim. Livelihood diversification is typical in coastal rural areas and it is increasingly important to identify opportunities for income generation and ways to alleviate poverty. The rural people are looking for diverse opportunities to increase and stabilize their incomes, which are determined by their portfolio of assets … Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer. Livelihood diversification is a strategy that can boost farmers’ income and promote sustainable land management practices. Livelihood diversification strategies, including crop, labour and income diversification, are important in these contexts, although the motivations and outcomes may vary significant. After thorough reading, 42 papers were used to review out of 182 papers. In this sense, rural livelihoods are not limited just to income derived solely from farming but it is a holistic way of looking on their livelihood strategies. more livelihood diversification and non-farm employment is typically good for individuals and overall economic growth in SSA. Diversification of livelihoods is a recurrently applied approach for cushioning economic and environmental shocks on the path to improving food security. INTRODUCTION The concept of livelihood diversification1 is emerging as a survival strategy of rural households in developing countries (Ellis 2000; Bryceson 2000). 3. Livelihood diversification enables rural household farmers to device other means to promote their level of income and minimize susceptibility to different livelihood shocks. A 1.0% increase in livelihood diversification will lead to 3.9% increase in income Some … 1,2,3 . It is therefore not surprising that many development strategies and programs seek to design development interventions to better promote livelihood diversification. It is relevant to discussion of livelihoods diversification in Section 2. Wp69.pdf (84.94Kb) Date 1998. This paper constitutes a preliminary output of the ODA-funded research programme on sustainable livelihoods being carried out by the Institute of Development Studies and the Poverty Research Unit at the University of Sussex, in collaboration with the International Institute for … Livelihood diversification can be seen as an attempt by individuals and households to find 121 new ways to raise incomes and reduce environmental risk (Haggablade et al. This study examines the role of livelihood diversification in promoting household food security with particular reference to Hurungwe District in Zimbabwe. (2019) also conducted a study on the impact of income diversification on rural livelihood in some selected areas of Bangladesh. After thorough reading, 42 papers were used to review out of 182 papers. There are a lot of pushes and pull factors that affect rural livelihood diversification. A 1.0% increase in livelihood diversification will lead to 3.9% increase in income signifying an elastic relationship. Livelihood diversification strategies play a key role in development process. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. This study was conducted to assess the various factors that affect households’ decisions on livelihood diversifications the case of Kuormuk and Homosha districts of Assosa zone, Beneshangul Gumuz regional state, western Ethiopia. Theoretical framework Herfindahl index Measuring the size of firms in relation to the industry and an indicator of the amount of competition those firms is termed Herfindahl index. Understanding how livelihood diversification contributes to long-term non-migration decisions of people at risks is innovative and timely in the context of future climate change adaptation planning. For instance in Pakistan, rural households commonly … This focuses on assessing the contribution and impact of predominant livelihood diversification strategies in study area. Abstract. Logistic Econometric Model Results Cumulative Frequency Percent In order to examine the role of livelihood Percent On- farm 148 41.69 41.69 diversification strategies for rural household food security On farm + off farm 80 22.54 64.23 in … DECLARATION I, Admiral Ncube … These include activity or environment diversification in … Livelihood diversification is defined as the “process by which rural families construct a diverse portfolio of activities and social support capabilities in their struggle for survival and in order to improve their standards of living” (Ellis, 1998). During the pilot study, it is found that Barbarua Block of Dibrugarh district has the … Nelson, John. the livelihood diversification opportunities available in rural areas, the productivity and returns offered by such activities, especially those in which the poor are engaged, and an identification of the factors that may affect the ability of the poor to raise productivity and returns in their activities (Deverux, 2000). Although still of central importance, farming on its own is increasingly unable to provide a sufficient means of survival in rural areas. Livelihood diversification is defined as the process by which rural families construct a diverse portfolio of activities and social support capabilities in order to survive and to improve their standards of living. Data was gathered by household survey from … By KEMERIA BARSENGA KEDIR Submitted in part fulfilment of the requirements For the degree of MASTER IN HUMAN ECOLOGY At the UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AFRICA The result generated through review may be important for development practitioners, researchers and … Livelihood diversification has been defined as the process by which rural families construct a diverse portfolio of activities and social support capabilities in their struggle for survival and in order to improve their standards of living [7]. assessing the relationship between livelihood diversification strategies and household food security) logistic regression model was used. Livelihood diversification in South Africa has become a norm for most of the rural households as a strategy to cope with the growing population and the rate at which poverty is rising among the households (Munhenga, 2014). 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